Clinical Studies

Clinical studies were conducted at the Department of Health and Exercise Science at Colorado State University (abstract available at, in order to understand vitamin C bioavailability. Bioavailability is the measure of how much of a supplement’s ingredient – for example Vitamin C, is present in the bloodstream and ready to do its job of countering oxidative stress, reducing inflammation and combating disease and bodily degradation. The team compared vitamin C concentrations in the blood after swallowing a “normal” vitamin C powder and after ingestion of liposomal vitamin C made using our technology.

Figure 1 shows that, compared with “normal” vitamin C ingestion (a single dose of 4 g), ingestion of liposomal vitamin C (also 4 g) leads to appreciably greater circulating Vitamin C concentrations. Hence, liposomes facilitate Vitamin C delivery to the blood.

Figure 1 – Measure of Bioavailability


The next step in the study is to determine if the vitamin C concentration is meaningful. In this regard, an ischemia reperfusion study was performed. Ischemia describes any tissue that has been deprived of blood and oxygen. Reperfusion occurs when the blood and oxygen supply is returned. Unfortunately, reperfusion can cause massive oxidative stress on your cardiovascular system, as the oxygen interacts with metabolites produced by the oxygen-deprived tissues. Per the blue line in Figure 2, oxidative stress was reduced even during the increased oxidative stress of reperfusion.

Figure 2 – Efficacy


Living Spheres is committed to providing you with the best bioavailable vitamin C, and we believe the clinical data shows the efficacy of the liposomal vitamin C found in NanoVite.